解決virtualenv -p python3 venv報錯的問題

在阿裡雲服務器上,用virtualenv創建虛擬環境時,報瞭個錯誤

[email protected]:/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv-15.0.1.egg-info# virtualenv -p python3 venv
Running virtualenv with interpreter /usr/bin/python2
New python executable in /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv-15.0.1.egg-info/venv/bin/python2
Not overwriting existing python script /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv-15.0.1.egg-info/venv/bin/python (you must use /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv-15.0.1.egg-info/venv/bin/python2)
Please make sure you remove any previous custom paths from your /root/.pydistutils.cfg file.
 1 [global]
Installing setuptools, pkg_resources, pip, wheel...
 Complete output from command /usr/lib/python3/dis...nfo/venv/bin/python2 - setuptools pkg_resources pip wheel:
 Collecting setuptools
 Downloading http://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/packages/ff/f4/385715ccc461885f3cedf57a41ae3c12b5fec3f35cce4c8706b1a112a133/setuptools-40.0.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (567kB)
Collecting pkg_resources
Exception:
Traceback (most recent call last):
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/basecommand.py", line 209, in main
 status = self.run(options, args)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/commands/install.py", line 328, in run
 wb.build(autobuilding=True)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/wheel.py", line 748, in build
 self.requirement_set.prepare_files(self.finder)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/req/req_set.py", line 360, in prepare_files
 ignore_dependencies=self.ignore_dependencies))
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/req/req_set.py", line 512, in _prepare_file
 finder, self.upgrade, require_hashes)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/req/req_install.py", line 273, in populate_link
 self.link = finder.find_requirement(self, upgrade)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/index.py", line 442, in find_requirement
 all_candidates = self.find_all_candidates(req.name)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/index.py", line 400, in find_all_candidates
 for page in self._get_pages(url_locations, project_name):
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/index.py", line 545, in _get_pages
 page = self._get_page(location)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/index.py", line 648, in _get_page
 return HTMLPage.get_page(link, session=self.session)
 File "/usr/share/python-wheels/pip-8.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/pip/index.py", line 760, in get_page
 resp.raise_for_status()
 File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv-15.0.1.egg-info/venv/share/python-wheels/requests-2.9.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl/requests/models.py", line 840, in raise_for_status
 raise HTTPError(http_error_msg, response=self)
HTTPError: 404 Client Error: Not Found for url: http://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/simple/pkg-resources/
----------------------------------------
...Installing setuptools, pkg_resources, pip, wheel...done.
Traceback (most recent call last):
 File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 2363, in <module>
 main()
 File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 719, in main
 symlink=options.symlink)
 File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 988, in create_environment
 download=download,
 File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 918, in install_wheel
 call_subprocess(cmd, show_stdout=False, extra_env=env, stdin=SCRIPT)
 File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 812, in call_subprocess
 % (cmd_desc, proc.returncode))
OSError: Command /usr/lib/python3/dis...nfo/venv/bin/python2 - setuptools pkg_resources pip wheel failed with error code 2

看到HTTPError: 404 Client Error: Not Found for url: http://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/simple/pkg-resources/以為是阿裡雲的安全組配置沒配好,折騰瞭半天,原來是訪問PyPI鏡像源出瞭問題,將pip的默認的源地址改為國內源即可。

具體操作如下:

vim ~/.pip/pip.conf打開pip配置文件:

寫入

[global]
index-url = http://e.pypi.python.org/simple

以下這幾個國內源都可以

e.pypi.python.org

pypi.douban.com

pypi.hustunique.com

補充:使用virtualenv創建Python3.7虛擬環境時報錯ModuleNotFoundError: No module named ‘_ctypes’的解決方法

使用virtualenv創建Python3.7.6版本虛擬環境時,遇到瞭標題中的報錯,記錄一下解決過程。

出現這種情況一般是因為缺少依賴包libffi-devel

在安裝3.7以上版本時,需要一個新的libffi-devel包做依賴

使用yum安裝依賴

yum install libffi-devel -y

刪除之前安裝的報錯的虛擬環境目錄

rm -f venv

重新編譯安裝系統Python3.7.6(需要先找到安裝時的Python源碼包,cd到目錄中)

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python3
make && make install

刪除之前建立的軟連接

rm -rf /usr/bin/python3
rm -rf /usr/bin/pip3

重新建立軟連接

ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.7 /usr/bin/python3
ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/pip3.7 /usr/bin/pip3

到此Python3重新安裝完成,可以用python3、pip3命令測試一下是否安裝成功。

進入虛擬目錄將要存放的目錄,使用新安裝的Python3創建虛擬環境。此處需要使用-p參數指定Python版本路徑,否則默認創建Python2的環境。

virtualenv -p /usr/bin/python3 venv

測試進入創建好的虛擬環境中

source venv/bin/activate

退出環境

deactivate

以上為個人經驗,希望能給大傢一個參考,也希望大傢多多支持WalkonNet。如有錯誤或未考慮完全的地方,望不吝賜教。