Django rest framework如何自定義用戶表

說明

Django 默認的用戶表 auth_user 包含 id, password, last_login, is_superuser, username, last_name, email, is_staff, is_active, date_joined, first_name 字段。這些基本字段不夠用時,在此基本表上拓展字段是很好選擇。本文介紹在 DRF(Django Rest Framework) 上使用自定義用戶表進行接口訪問控制的功能設計。

1. Django項目和應用創建

先裝必要的模塊

pip install django
pip install djangorestframework

創建項目文件夾、項目和應用

E:\SweetYaya> mkdir MyProj01
E:\SweetYaya> cd MyProj01
E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01> django-admin startproject MyProj01 .
E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01> django-admin startapp MyApp

同步數據庫

E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01> python manage.py migrate
Operations to perform:
  Apply all migrations: admin, auth, contenttypes, sessions
Running migrations:
  Applying contenttypes.0001_initial... OK
  Applying auth.0001_initial... OK
  Applying admin.0001_initial... OK
  Applying admin.0002_logentry_remove_auto_add... OK
  ...
  Applying sessions.0001_initial... OK

執行如下命令後測試訪問 http://127.0.0.1:8000/

E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01>python manage.py runserver
Watching for file changes with StatReloader
Performing system checks...

System check identified no issues (0 silenced).
June 07, 2021 - 21:16:57
Django version 3.2.4, using settings 'MyProj01.settings'
Starting development server at http://127.0.0.1:8000/
Quit the server with CTRL-BREAK.

2. 自定義User表

打開 MyApp/models.py 文件,創建繼承自 AbstractUserUserProfile 類,給它添加 namemobile 字段,它就是我們自定義的用戶表。

from django.db import models
from django.contrib.auth.models import AbstractUser


class UserProfile(AbstractUser):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=30, null=True, blank=True, verbose_name="姓名")
    mobile = models.CharField(max_length=11, verbose_name="電話")

    class Meta:
        verbose_name = "用戶"
        verbose_name_plural = "用戶"

        def __str__(self):
            return self.name

3. 序列化和路由

我們直接在 MyProj01/url.py 中進行定義序列化方法和路由配置

from django.urls import path, include
from MyApp.models import UserProfile
from rest_framework import routers, serializers, viewsets


# Serializers define the API representation.
class UserSerializer(serializers.HyperlinkedModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = UserProfile
        fields = ['url', 'username', 'name', 'mobile', 'email', 'is_staff']


# ViewSets define the view behavior.
class UserViewSet(viewsets.ModelViewSet):
    queryset = UserProfile.objects.all()
    serializer_class = UserSerializer


# Routers provide an easy way of automatically determining the URL conf.
router = routers.DefaultRouter()
router.register('users', UserViewSet)

# Wire up our API using automatic URL routing.
# Additionally, we include login URLs for the browsable API.
urlpatterns = [
    path('', include(router.urls)),
    path('api-auth/', include('rest_framework.urls', namespace='rest_framework'))
]

3. DRF配置

找到 MyProj01/settings.py ,做如下配置

加入上面創建的應用和 rest_framework

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
	...
    'rest_framework',
    'MyApp',
]

添加全局認證設置

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_PERMISSION_CLASSES': [
        'rest_framework.permissions.IsAuthenticated'
    ]
}

修改默認用戶表,至此 settings.py 全部配置完成瞭。

AUTH_USER_MODEL = 'MyApp.UserProfile'

4. 同步數據庫

執行 makemigrations 命令

E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01> python manage.py makemigrations
Migrations for 'MyApp':
  MyApp\migrations\0001_initial.py
    - Create model UserProfile

執行 migrate 命令出現如下錯誤

E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01> python manage.py migrate
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "manage.py", line 22, in <module>
    main()
  File "manage.py", line 18, in main
    execute_from_command_line(sys.argv)
  File "D:\Program Files\Python36\lib\site-packages\django\core\management\__init__.py", line 419, in execute_from_command_line
    utility.execute()
  File "D:\Program Files\Python36\lib\site-packages\django\core\management\__init__.py", line 413, in execute
    self.fetch_command(subcommand).run_from_argv(self.argv)
  File "D:\Program Files\Python36\lib\site-packages\django\core\management\base.py", line 354, in run_from_argv
    self.execute(*args, **cmd_options)
  File "D:\Program Files\Python36\lib\site-packages\django\core\management\base.py", line 398, in execute
    output = self.handle(*args, **options)
  File "D:\Program Files\Python36\lib\site-packages\django\core\management\base.py", line 89, in wrapped
    res = handle_func(*args, **kwargs)
  File "D:\Program Files\Python36\lib\site-packages\django\core\management\commands\migrate.py", line 95, in handle
    executor.loader.check_consistent_history(connection)
  File "D:\Program Files\Python36\lib\site-packages\django\db\migrations\loader.py", line 310, in check_consistent_history
    connection.alias,
django.db.migrations.exceptions.InconsistentMigrationHistory: Migration admin.0001_initial is applied before its dependency MyApp.0001_initial on database 'default'.

解決辦法

makemigrations打開 settings.py ,註釋掉 INSTALL_APPS 中的
'django.contrib.admin',打開 urls.py ,註釋掉 urlpatterns 中的 admin,再 migrate 就不報錯瞭。最後註意把註釋內容恢復回來就好瞭。

E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01> python manage.py migrate
Operations to perform:
  Apply all migrations: MyApp, admin, auth, contenttypes, sessions
Running migrations:
  Applying contenttypes.0001_initial... OK
  Applying contenttypes.0002_remove_content_type_name... OK
  ...
  Applying admin.0003_logentry_add_action_flag_choices... OK
  Applying sessions.0001_initial... OK

5. 測試

執行命令

E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01>python manage.py runserver

訪問 http://127.0.0.1:8000/users/ 出現結果如下,此時表明配置成功,但是尚未進行用戶登錄無權訪問。

在這裡插入圖片描述

6. 命令行註冊用戶

進入 Python Shell

E:\SweetYaya\MyProj01> python manage.py shell
Python 3.6.6 (v3.6.6:4cf1f54eb7, Jun 27 2018, 03:37:03) [MSC v.1900 64 bit (AMD64)]
Type 'copyright', 'credits' or 'license' for more information
IPython 6.5.0 -- An enhanced Interactive Python. Type '?' for help.

鍵入如下代碼

In [1]: from MyApp.models import UserProfile

In [2]: from django.contrib.auth.hashers import make_password

In [3]: ist = UserProfile(username='guest01',password=make_password('123456'))

In [4]: ist.save()

In [5]: ist = UserProfile(username='guest02',password=make_password('123456'))

In [6]: ist.save()

然後在數據庫中查看 MyApp_userprofile 表發現多瞭兩條記錄,添加成功,繼續訪問 http://127.0.0.1:8000/users/ 地址,使用用戶密碼登錄可見如下。測試完成。

在這裡插入圖片描述

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