Docker部署SQL Server 2019 Always On集群的實現

Docker部署Always on集群

SQL Server在2016年開始支持Linux。隨著2017和2019版本的發佈,它開始支持Linux和容器平臺上的HA/DR、Kubernetes和大數據集群解決方案。

在本文中,我們將在3個節點的Docker容器上安裝SQL Server 2019,並創建AlwaysOn可用性組。

我們的目標是使用單個配置文件快速準備好環境。因此,開發人員或測試團隊可以快速執行諸如兼容性、連通性、代碼功能等測試。

在本節中,我們將首先準備一個基於Ubuntu的映像,以便能夠在容器上安裝可用性組。然後我們將執行必要的安裝。

重要提示:不建議在生產環境中執行操作。安裝是在Ubuntu 18.04上執行的。

安裝Docker

安裝Docker就不介紹瞭,自行安裝即可.

架構

主機名 IP 端口 角色
sqlNode1 宿主機IP 1501:1433
sqlNode2 宿主機IP 1502:1433 副本
sqlNode3 宿主機IP 1503:1433 副本

端口表示:外網端口:內網端口

準備相關容器鏡像

拉取操作系統和數據庫的Docker鏡像,如下

操作系統

docker pull ubuntu:18.04

SQL Server 2019

docker pull mcr.microsoft.com/mssql/server:2019-latest

可通過docker images來查看已下載的鏡像信息。

鏡像地址:https://hub.docker.com/_/microsoft-mssql-server

開始配置-容器

環境準備完畢後,開始正式的配置安裝。

步驟1:創建Dockerfile

創建目錄用於存放dockerfile、docker-compose.yml等文件。

mkdir /sql2019ha
cd /sql2019ha
touch dockerfile
vi dockerfile

dockerfile內容如下

FROM ubuntu:18.04
 
RUN apt-get update
 
RUN apt install sudo wget curl gnupg gnupg1 gnupg2 -y
RUN apt install software-properties-common systemd vim -y
RUN wget -qO- https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | sudo apt-key add -
 
RUN add-apt-repository "$(wget -qO- https://packages.microsoft.com/config/ubuntu/18.04/mssql-server-2019.list)"
RUN apt-get update
RUN apt-get install -y mssql-server
 
RUN /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf set hadr.hadrenabled  1
RUN /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf set sqlagent.enabled true
 
EXPOSE 1433
 
ENTRYPOINT /opt/mssql/bin/sqlservr

說明

  • FROM:表示基於什麼鏡像進行安裝的
  • RUN:在鏡像中進行的操作
  • EXPOSE:指定服務端口
  • ENTRYPOINT:運行命令

步驟2:編譯鏡像

通過dockerfile來編譯鏡像,用於後面的安裝,命令:docker build -t sqlag2019:ha .

其中sqlag2019為鏡像名稱,ha是鏡像標簽,.表示在當前目錄下編譯,因為dockerfile就在當前目錄下。

以下輸出是精簡的,實際上輸出非常多…也需要一定時間(安裝一些包、數據庫等),由網速決定

$ docker build -t sqlag2019:ha .
Sending build context to Docker daemon   2.56kB
Step 1/12 : FROM ubuntu:18.04
 ---> c3c304cb4f22
Step 2/12 : RUN apt-get update
 ---> Running in 950e50f80f00
Get:1 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic InRelease [242 kB]
Get:2 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security InRelease [88.7 kB]
Get:3 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security/main amd64 Packages [932 kB]
Get:4 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates InRelease [88.7 kB]...
Step 3/12 : RUN apt install sudo wget curl gnupg gnupg1 gnupg2 -y
 ---> Running in edc9d15b2383
..
..
Step 8/12 : RUN sudo apt-get install -y mssql-server
 ---> Running in 43d82a503f8a
Reading package lists...
Building dependency tree...
Reading state information...
The following additional packages will be installed:
Step 9/12 : RUN sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf set hadr.hadrenabled  1
 ---> Running in 166c6596d2dd
SQL Server needs to be restarted in order to apply this setting. Please run
'systemctl restart mssql-server.service'.
Removing intermediate container 166c6596d2dd
 ---> bcdb057fed43
Step 10/12 : RUN sudo /opt/mssql/bin/mssql-conf set sqlagent.enabled true
 ---> Running in 22dd6a93d1ef
SQL Server needs to be restarted in order to apply this setting. Please run
'systemctl restart mssql-server.service'.
Removing intermediate container 22dd6a93d1ef
 ---> 6b90afbaf94e
Step 11/12 : EXPOSE 1433
 ---> Running in bcc14f3b0bad
Removing intermediate container bcc14f3b0bad
 ---> 4aae1563aa74
Step 12/12 : ENTRYPOINT /opt/mssql/bin/sqlservr
 ---> Running in 68b6ed45ff6a
Removing intermediate container 68b6ed45ff6a
 ---> b7467618c371
Successfully built b7467618c371
Successfully tagged sqlag2019:ha

最後出現Successfully表示編譯成功,否則根據錯誤信息進行解決。

步驟3:創建容器

現在鏡像編譯好瞭,下面再通過docker-compose文件來創建、配置3個容器,具體內容如下:

$ touch docker-compose.yml
$ vi docker-compose.yml
version: '3'
 
services:
  db1:
    container_name: sqlNode1
    image: sqlag2019:ha
    hostname: sqlNode1
    domainname: lab.local
    environment:
      SA_PASSWORD: "MyPassWord123"
      ACCEPT_EULA: "Y"
    ports:
    - "1501:1433"
    extra_hosts:
      sqlNode2.labl.local: "172.16.238.22"
      sqlNode3.labl.local: "172.16.238.23"
    networks:
        internal:
                ipv4_address: 172.16.238.21
 
  db2:
    container_name: sqlNode2
    image: sqlag2019:ha
    hostname: sqlNode2
    domainname: lab.local
    environment:
      SA_PASSWORD: "MyPassWord123"
      ACCEPT_EULA: "Y"
    ports:
    - "1502:1433"
    extra_hosts:
      sqlNode1.lab.local: "172.16.238.21"
      sqlNode3.lab.local: "172.16.238.23"
    networks:
        internal:
                ipv4_address: 172.16.238.22
 
  db3:
    container_name: sqlNode3
    image: sqlag2019:ha
    hostname: sqlNode3
    domainname: lab.local
    environment:
      SA_PASSWORD: "MyPassWord123"
      ACCEPT_EULA: "Y"
    ports:
    - "1503:1433"
    extra_hosts:
      sqlNode1.lab.local: "172.16.238.21"
      sqlNode2.lab.local: "172.16.238.22"
    networks:
        internal:
                ipv4_address: 172.16.238.23
 
networks:
    internal:
      ipam:
            driver: default
            config:
                - subnet: 172.16.238.0/24

步驟4:啟動容器

然後通過docker-compose up -d命令啟動三個容器,其中-d表示在後臺運行。

$ docker-compose up -d
Creating network "sql2019hademo_internal" with the default driver
Creating sqlNode2 ...
Creating sqlNode1 ...
Creating sqlNode2
Creating sqlNode3 ...
Creating sqlNode1
Creating sqlNode2 ... done

註意:docker-compose是需要單獨安裝的,就是一個可執行文件。可通過apt、yum來安裝。

查看容器狀態

$ docker-compose ps
Name                Command               State           Ports
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
sqlNode1   /bin/sh -c /opt/mssql/bin/ ...   Up      0.0.0.0:1501->1433/tcp
sqlNode2   /bin/sh -c /opt/mssql/bin/ ...   Up      0.0.0.0:1502->1433/tcp
sqlNode3   /bin/sh -c /opt/mssql/bin/ ...   Up      0.0.0.0:1503->1433/tcp

至此容器已經啟動完成,下面通過SSMS連接數據庫進行相關檢查和配置ALWAYSON。

步驟5:SSMS連接MSSQL

通過宿主機的外網IP+端口連接相應的數據庫,如下:

在這裡插入圖片描述

註意:IP和端口之間是逗號

在這裡插入圖片描述

可以看到數據庫的圖標也是Linux的圖標。

配置-數據庫

這部分就是在數據庫中進行相關配置,如:創建KEY加密文件,管理用戶、可用組等。

步驟1:連接主庫-sqlNode1

主庫也就是節點1,端口是1501,連接方法如上圖。

我們將證書和私鑰提取到/tmp/dbm_certificate.cer/tmp/dbm_certificate.pvk文件中。

我們將這些文件復制到其他節點,並根據以下文件創建主密鑰和證書:執行以下腳本

USE master
GO
 
CREATE LOGIN dbm_login WITH PASSWORD = 'MyStr0ngPa$w0rd';
CREATE USER dbm_user FOR LOGIN dbm_login;
GO
 
CREATE MASTER KEY ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'MyStr0ngPa$w0rd';
go
CREATE CERTIFICATE dbm_certificate WITH SUBJECT = 'dbm';
BACKUP CERTIFICATE dbm_certificate
TO FILE = '/tmp/dbm_certificate.cer'
WITH PRIVATE KEY (
        FILE = '/tmp/dbm_certificate.pvk',
        ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'MyStr0ngPa$w0rd'
    );
GO

將文件拷貝到其他兩個節點:

$ docker cp sqlNode1:/tmp/dbm_certificate.cer .
$ docker cp sqlNode1:/tmp/dbm_certificate.pvk .
$ docker cp dbm_certificate.cer sqlNode2:/tmp/
$ docker cp dbm_certificate.pvk sqlNode2:/tmp/
$ docker cp dbm_certificate.cer sqlNode3:/tmp/
$ docker cp dbm_certificate.pvk sqlNode3:/tmp/

步驟2:連接從庫-sqlNode2和sqlNode3

兩個從庫的端口分別是:1502和1503.然後重復主庫執行的操作,如下:

CREATE LOGIN dbm_login WITH PASSWORD = 'MyStr0ngPa$w0rd';
CREATE USER dbm_user FOR LOGIN dbm_login;
GO
 
CREATE MASTER KEY ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'MyStr0ngPa$w0rd';
GO
CREATE CERTIFICATE dbm_certificate   
    AUTHORIZATION dbm_user
    FROM FILE = '/tmp/dbm_certificate.cer'
    WITH PRIVATE KEY (
    FILE = '/tmp/dbm_certificate.pvk',
    DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'MyStr0ngPa$w0rd'
);
GO

步驟3:所有節點

在所有節點上執行以下命令

CREATE ENDPOINT [Hadr_endpoint]
    AS TCP (LISTENER_IP = (0.0.0.0), LISTENER_PORT = 5022)
    FOR DATA_MIRRORING (
        ROLE = ALL,
        AUTHENTICATION = CERTIFICATE dbm_certificate,
        ENCRYPTION = REQUIRED ALGORITHM AES
        );
ALTER ENDPOINT [Hadr_endpoint] STATE = STARTED;
GRANT CONNECT ON ENDPOINT::[Hadr_endpoint] TO [dbm_login];

啟用開機自啟動ALWAYON,在所有節點執行以下命令

ALTER EVENT SESSION  AlwaysOn_health ON SERVER WITH (STARTUP_STATE=ON);
GO

步驟4:創建高可用組

可以用SSMS工具和T-SQL兩種方式,下面以T-SQL為例:

運行以下腳本在主節點中創建一個可用性組。 請註意,選擇CLUSTER_TYPE = NONE選項是因為它是在沒有諸如Pacemaker或Windows Server故障轉移群集之類的群集管理平臺的情況下安裝的。

如果要在Linux上安裝AlwaysOn AG,則應為Pacemaker選擇CLUSTER_TYPE = EXTERNAL:

CREATE AVAILABILITY GROUP [AG1]
        WITH (CLUSTER_TYPE = NONE)
        FOR REPLICA ON
        N'sqlNode1'
            WITH (
            ENDPOINT_URL = N'tcp://sqlNode1:5022',
            AVAILABILITY_MODE = ASYNCHRONOUS_COMMIT,
                SEEDING_MODE = AUTOMATIC,
                FAILOVER_MODE = MANUAL,
            SECONDARY_ROLE (ALLOW_CONNECTIONS = ALL)
                ),
        N'sqlNode2'
            WITH (
            ENDPOINT_URL = N'tcp://sqlNode2:5022',
            AVAILABILITY_MODE = ASYNCHRONOUS_COMMIT,
                SEEDING_MODE = AUTOMATIC,
                FAILOVER_MODE = MANUAL,
            SECONDARY_ROLE (ALLOW_CONNECTIONS = ALL)
                ),
        N'sqlNode3'
            WITH (
            ENDPOINT_URL = N'tcp://sqlNode3:5022',
            AVAILABILITY_MODE = ASYNCHRONOUS_COMMIT,
                SEEDING_MODE = AUTOMATIC,
                FAILOVER_MODE = MANUAL,
            SECONDARY_ROLE (ALLOW_CONNECTIONS = ALL)
                );
GO

在從庫中執行以下命令,將從庫加入到AG組中

ALTER AVAILABILITY GROUP [ag1] JOIN WITH (CLUSTER_TYPE = NONE);
ALTER AVAILABILITY GROUP [ag1] GRANT CREATE ANY DATABASE;
GO

至此在Docker容器中安裝SQL Server Alwayson集群已經完成瞭!

註意:當指定CLUSTER_TYPE = NONE創建可用組時,在執行故障轉移時需執行以下命令

ALTER AVAILABILITY GROUP [ag1] FORCE_FAILOVER_ALLOW_DATA_LOSS

測試

在主庫上創建一個數據庫,並加入到可用組AG中。

CREATE DATABASE agtestdb;
GO
ALTER DATABASE agtestdb SET RECOVERY FULL;
GO
BACKUP DATABASE agtestdb TO DISK = '/var/opt/mssql/data/agtestdb.bak';
GO
ALTER AVAILABILITY GROUP [ag1] ADD DATABASE [agtestdb];
GO

通過SSMS查看同步狀態是否正常.

參考連接

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/quickstart-install-connect-docker?view=sql-server-ver15
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/quickstart-install-connect-ubuntu?view=sql-server-ver15
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/sql-server-linux-create-availability-group?view=sql-server-ver15
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/sql-server-linux-configure-mssql-conf?view=sql-server-ver15
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/sql-server-linux-configure-environment-variables?view=sql-server-ver15
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/sql-server-linux-availability-group-cluster-ubuntu?view=sql-server-linux-ver15
https://docs.docker.com/engine/install/ubuntu/
https://docs.docker.com/compose/

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