spring是如何實現聲明式事務的

前言

今天我們來講講spring的聲明式事務。

開始

說到聲明式事務,我們現在回顧一下事務這個概念,什麼是事務呢,事務指的是邏輯上的⼀組操作,組成這組操作的各個單元,要麼全部成功,要麼全部不成功。從而確保瞭數據的準確與安全。事務有著四大特性(ACID),分別是
原子性(Atomicity)原⼦性是指事務是⼀個不可分割的⼯作單位,事務中的操作要麼都發⽣,要麼都不發⽣。

⼀致性(Consistency)事務必須使數據庫從⼀個⼀致性狀態變換到另外⼀個⼀致性狀態。

隔離性(Isolation)事務的隔離性是多個⽤戶並發訪問數據庫時,數據庫為每⼀個⽤戶開啟的事務,每個事務不能被其他事務的操作數據所⼲擾,多個並發事務之間要相互隔離。

持久性(Durability) 持久性是指⼀個事務⼀旦被提交,它對數據庫中數據的改變就是永久性的,接下來即使數據庫發⽣故障

也不應該對其有任何影響。

在spring中,一共有兩種方式可以實現事務控制,分別是編程式事務和聲明式事務。編程式事務指的是在代碼中添加事務控制代碼,而聲明式事務指的是利用xml或者註解的形式來配置控制事務,下面就以純註解配置聲明式事務為例進行剖析。

spring開啟聲明式事務的註解是@EnableTransactionManagement,講到這裡首先要明白一點,spring的事務管理器管理事務其實就是利用aop的方式,通過創建動態代理加上攔截,實現的事務管理。在spring的配置類中加上這個註解,就支持瞭聲明式事務,那麼spring是怎麼通過這麼一個註解就可以支持事務的呢,我們來看代碼。
首先我們看到,在這個註解上,import瞭一個selector

@Import(TransactionManagementConfigurationSelector.class)

我們看這個selector類中的這麼一段代碼

@Override
 protected String[] selectImports(AdviceMode adviceMode) {
  switch (adviceMode) {
   case PROXY:
    return new String[] {AutoProxyRegistrar.class.getName(),
      ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration.class.getName()};
   case ASPECTJ:
    return new String[] {determineTransactionAspectClass()};
   default:
    return null;
  }
 }

這段代碼中,引入瞭AutoProxyRegistrar和ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration這兩個類,我們先來看AutoProxyRegistrar這個類,這個類中有一段這樣的代碼

if (mode == AdviceMode.PROXY) {
    //重要的是這句代碼
 AopConfigUtils.registerAutoProxyCreatorIfNecessary(registry);
 if ((Boolean) proxyTargetClass) {
  AopConfigUtils.forceAutoProxyCreatorToUseClassProxying(registry);
  return;
 }
}

//我們進到這個方法中
@Nullable
 public static BeanDefinition registerAutoProxyCreatorIfNecessary(
   BeanDefinitionRegistry registry, @Nullable Object source) {
        //可以看到引入瞭InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator這個類,那麼這個類又是什麼呢
  return registerOrEscalateApcAsRequired(InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator.class, registry, source);
 }

//先看一下
public class InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator extends AbstractAdvisorAutoProxyCreator {

 @Nullable
 private ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory;

 @Override
 protected void initBeanFactory(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory) {
  super.initBeanFactory(beanFactory);
  this.beanFactory = beanFactory;
 }

 @Override
 protected boolean isEligibleAdvisorBean(String beanName) {
  return (this.beanFactory != null && this.beanFactory.containsBeanDefinition(beanName) &&
    this.beanFactory.getBeanDefinition(beanName).getRole() == BeanDefinition.ROLE_INFRASTRUCTURE);
 }
}

看一下繼承結構圖

可以看到這個方法間接繼承於SmartInstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor,最終繼承於BeanPostProcessor,這說明InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator類是一個後置處理器,並且跟 spring AOP 開啟@EnableAspectJAutoProxy 時註冊的AnnotationAwareAspectJProxyCreator實現的是同⼀個接口,這也對應瞭我之前所說聲明式事務是springAOP思想的一種應用。

然後我們回過頭來再看ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration這個類,我們看到其中有一個事務增強器,一個屬性解析器和是一個事務攔截器

    @Bean(name = TransactionManagementConfigUtils.TRANSACTION_ADVISOR_BEAN_NAME)
 @Role(BeanDefinition.ROLE_INFRASTRUCTURE)
 public BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor transactionAdvisor(
   TransactionAttributeSource transactionAttributeSource, TransactionInterceptor transactionInterceptor) {

  // 事務增強器
  BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor advisor = new BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor();
  // 註入屬性解析器
  advisor.setTransactionAttributeSource(transactionAttributeSource);
  // 註入事務攔截器
  advisor.setAdvice(transactionInterceptor);
  if (this.enableTx != null) {
   advisor.setOrder(this.enableTx.<Integer>getNumber("order"));
  }
  return advisor;
 }

    @Bean
 @Role(BeanDefinition.ROLE_INFRASTRUCTURE)
 // 屬性解析器
 public TransactionAttributeSource transactionAttributeSource() {
  return new AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource();
 }

 @Bean
 @Role(BeanDefinition.ROLE_INFRASTRUCTURE)
 // 事務攔截器
 public TransactionInterceptor transactionInterceptor(TransactionAttributeSource transactionAttributeSource) {
  TransactionInterceptor interceptor = new TransactionInterceptor();
  interceptor.setTransactionAttributeSource(transactionAttributeSource);
  if (this.txManager != null) {
   interceptor.setTransactionManager(this.txManager);
  }
  return interceptor;
 }

先看看屬性解析器

//註解解析器集合
 private final Set<TransactionAnnotationParser> annotationParsers;

這是一個註解解析器的集合,可以添加多種註解解析器,在這裡我們主要關註的是spring事務註解解析器SpringTransactionParser,看一下相關代碼

protected TransactionAttribute parseTransactionAnnotation(AnnotationAttributes attributes) {
  RuleBasedTransactionAttribute rbta = new RuleBasedTransactionAttribute();

  // 對應Transaction註解的相關屬性
  Propagation propagation = attributes.getEnum("propagation");
  rbta.setPropagationBehavior(propagation.value());
  Isolation isolation = attributes.getEnum("isolation");
  rbta.setIsolationLevel(isolation.value());
  rbta.setTimeout(attributes.getNumber("timeout").intValue());
  rbta.setReadOnly(attributes.getBoolean("readOnly"));
  rbta.setQualifier(attributes.getString("value"));

  List<RollbackRuleAttribute> rollbackRules = new ArrayList<>();
  for (Class<?> rbRule : attributes.getClassArray("rollbackFor")) {
   rollbackRules.add(new RollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule));
  }
  for (String rbRule : attributes.getStringArray("rollbackForClassName")) {
   rollbackRules.add(new RollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule));
  }
  for (Class<?> rbRule : attributes.getClassArray("noRollbackFor")) {
   rollbackRules.add(new NoRollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule));
  }
  for (String rbRule : attributes.getStringArray("noRollbackForClassName")) {
   rollbackRules.add(new NoRollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule));
  }
  rbta.setRollbackRules(rollbackRules);

  return rbta;
 }

可以看到這段代碼中的Enum和ClassArray其實正是@Transaction註解中的相關屬性,這個屬性解析器的作用之一就是用來解析@Transaction註解中的屬性
看完瞭屬性解析器,我們接下來看事務攔截器TransactionInterceptor,其中重要的是這段代碼

    @Override
 @Nullable
 public Object invoke(MethodInvocation invocation) throws Throwable {
  // Work out the target class: may be {@code null}.
  // The TransactionAttributeSource should be passed the target class
  // as well as the method, which may be from an interface.
  Class<?> targetClass = (invocation.getThis() != null ? AopUtils.getTargetClass(invocation.getThis()) : null);

  // Adapt to TransactionAspectSupport's invokeWithinTransaction...
  // 增加事務支持
  return invokeWithinTransaction(invocation.getMethod(), targetClass, invocation::proceed);
 }

然後我們進到這個方法裡面

@Nullable
 protected Object invokeWithinTransaction(Method method, @Nullable Class<?> targetClass,
   final InvocationCallback invocation) throws Throwable {

  // If the transaction attribute is null, the method is non-transactional.
  // 獲取屬性解析器,在配置類ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration配置時加入
  TransactionAttributeSource tas = getTransactionAttributeSource();
  final TransactionAttribute txAttr = (tas != null ? tas.getTransactionAttribute(method, targetClass) : null);
  final TransactionManager tm = determineTransactionManager(txAttr);

  if (this.reactiveAdapterRegistry != null && tm instanceof ReactiveTransactionManager) {
   ReactiveTransactionSupport txSupport = this.transactionSupportCache.computeIfAbsent(method, key -> {
    if (KotlinDetector.isKotlinType(method.getDeclaringClass()) && KotlinDelegate.isSuspend(method)) {
     throw new TransactionUsageException(
       "Unsupported annotated transaction on suspending function detected: " + method +
       ". Use TransactionalOperator.transactional extensions instead.");
    }
    ReactiveAdapter adapter = this.reactiveAdapterRegistry.getAdapter(method.getReturnType());
    if (adapter == null) {
     throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot apply reactive transaction to non-reactive return type: " +
       method.getReturnType());
    }
    return new ReactiveTransactionSupport(adapter);
   });
   return txSupport.invokeWithinTransaction(
     method, targetClass, invocation, txAttr, (ReactiveTransactionManager) tm);
  }
  // 獲取事務管理器
  PlatformTransactionManager ptm = asPlatformTransactionManager(tm);
  final String joinpointIdentification = methodIdentification(method, targetClass, txAttr);

  if (txAttr == null || !(ptm instanceof CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager)) {
   // Standard transaction demarcation with getTransaction and commit/rollback calls.
   TransactionInfo txInfo = createTransactionIfNecessary(ptm, txAttr, joinpointIdentification);

   Object retVal;
   try {
    // This is an around advice: Invoke the next interceptor in the chain.
    // This will normally result in a target object being invoked.
    retVal = invocation.proceedWithInvocation();
   }
   catch (Throwable ex) {
    // target invocation exception
    // 目標方法拋異常,會執行回滾的操作
    completeTransactionAfterThrowing(txInfo, ex);
    throw ex;
   }
   finally {
    cleanupTransactionInfo(txInfo);
   }

   if (vavrPresent && VavrDelegate.isVavrTry(retVal)) {
    // Set rollback-only in case of Vavr failure matching our rollback rules...
    TransactionStatus status = txInfo.getTransactionStatus();
    if (status != null && txAttr != null) {
     retVal = VavrDelegate.evaluateTryFailure(retVal, txAttr, status);
    }
   }
   // 目標方法正常運行,會執行commitTransactionAfterReturning,執行事務提交操作
   commitTransactionAfterReturning(txInfo);
   return retVal;
  }

  else {
   final ThrowableHolder throwableHolder = new ThrowableHolder();

   // It's a CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager: pass a TransactionCallback in.
   try {
    Object result = ((CallbackPreferringPlatformTransactionManager) ptm).execute(txAttr, status -> {
     TransactionInfo txInfo = prepareTransactionInfo(ptm, txAttr, joinpointIdentification, status);
     try {
      Object retVal = invocation.proceedWithInvocation();
      if (vavrPresent && VavrDelegate.isVavrTry(retVal)) {
       // Set rollback-only in case of Vavr failure matching our rollback rules...
       retVal = VavrDelegate.evaluateTryFailure(retVal, txAttr, status);
      }
      return retVal;
     }
     catch (Throwable ex) {
      if (txAttr.rollbackOn(ex)) {
       // A RuntimeException: will lead to a rollback.
       if (ex instanceof RuntimeException) {
        throw (RuntimeException) ex;
       }
       else {
        throw new ThrowableHolderException(ex);
       }
      }
      else {
       // A normal return value: will lead to a commit.
       throwableHolder.throwable = ex;
       return null;
      }
     }
     finally {
      cleanupTransactionInfo(txInfo);
     }
    });

    // Check result state: It might indicate a Throwable to rethrow.
    if (throwableHolder.throwable != null) {
     throw throwableHolder.throwable;
    }
    return result;
   }
   catch (ThrowableHolderException ex) {
    throw ex.getCause();
   }
   catch (TransactionSystemException ex2) {
    if (throwableHolder.throwable != null) {
     logger.error("Application exception overridden by commit exception", throwableHolder.throwable);
     ex2.initApplicationException(throwableHolder.throwable);
    }
    throw ex2;
   }
   catch (Throwable ex2) {
    if (throwableHolder.throwable != null) {
     logger.error("Application exception overridden by commit exception", throwableHolder.throwable);
    }
    throw ex2;
   }
  }
 }

總結

總體來說,spring實現聲明式事務的過程是這樣的

  • @EnableTransactionManagement 註解,通過@import引⼊瞭TransactionManagementConfigurationSelector類,它的selectImports⽅法導⼊瞭另外兩個類:AutoProxyRegistrar和ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration
  • AutoProxyRegistrar類中方法registerBeanDefinitions中,通過 AopConfigUtils.registerAutoProxyCreatorIfNecessary(registry)引⼊InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator,是一個後置處理器類
  • ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration 是⼀個添加瞭@Configuration註解的配置類,註冊瞭事務增強器(註⼊屬性解析器、事務攔截器)AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource和TransactionInterceptor,AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource內部持有瞭⼀個解析器集合 Set annotationParsers,具體使⽤的是SpringTransactionAnnotationParser解析器,用來解析@Transactional的事務屬性,事務攔截器TransactionInterceptor實現瞭MethodInterceptor接⼝,該通用攔截會在產⽣代理對象之前和aop增強合並,最終⼀起影響到代理對象,TransactionInterceptor的invoke⽅法中invokeWithinTransaction會觸發原有業務邏輯調用(增強事務)

到此這篇關於spring是如何實現聲明式事務的的文章就介紹到這瞭,更多相關spring 聲明式事務內容請搜索WalkonNet以前的文章或繼續瀏覽下面的相關文章希望大傢以後多多支持WalkonNet!