MATLAB 全景圖切割及盒圖顯示的實現步驟

part1 全景圖切割

原圖:

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切割效果:

在這裡插入圖片描述
在這裡插入圖片描述

以下是切割部分步驟:
舉這張圖為例,圖片格式hdr,jpg啥的都行:

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1.1 邊緣剔除

有些全景圖會自帶白灰色邊緣,若是直接進行切割便會出現如下效果:

在這裡插入圖片描述

這時候我們首先要對原圖進行白邊剔除,代碼如下:

oriPic=imread('test.hdr');
[rows,cols,~]=size(oriPic);

for i=cols:-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListG=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListB=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(:,i,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(:,end:-1:1,:);
for i=size(oriPic,2):-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListG=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListB=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(:,i,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(:,end:-1:1,:);
for i=rows:-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListG=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListB=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(i,:,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(end:-1:1,:,:);
for i=size(oriPic,1):-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListG=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListB=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(i,:,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(end:-1:1,:,:);

1.2 圖像裁剪

我們要讓完成的就是如下的變換和裁剪:

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這部分其實已經有較為成熟的原理和代碼:
代碼參考:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/29678510/convert-21-equirectangular-panorama-to-cube-map

原理參考:
http://paulbourke.net/panorama/cubemaps/#1

http://paulbourke.net/panorama/cubemaps/

原理參考文章中更加清晰的變化圖:

在這裡插入圖片描述

另:
在參考代碼的基礎上,對映射像素進行瞭插值處理,可以使圖像更加平滑,原理如下:

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在這裡插入圖片描述

主要函數代碼:

function resultPic=createCubeMapFace(oriPic,id,height,width)
    [M,N,~]=size(oriPic);
    resultPic=zeros([height,width,3]);
    an=sin(pi/4);
    ak=cos(pi/4);
    
    faceTransform=[0,0;
               pi/2,0;
               pi,0;
               -pi/2,0;
               0,-pi/2;
               0,pi];
    ftu=faceTransform(id,1);
    ftv=faceTransform(id,2);

    for y=0:height-1
        for x=0:width-1
            nx=y/height-0.5;
            ny=x/width-0.5;

            nx=nx*2*an;
            ny=ny*2*an;

            if (ftv == 0)
                u=atan2(nx, ak);
                v=atan2(ny*cos(u),ak);
                u=u+ftu;
            elseif(ftv>0)
                d=sqrt(nx*nx+ny*ny);
                v=pi/2-atan2(d,ak);
                u=atan2(ny,nx);
            else
                d=sqrt(nx*nx+ny*ny);
                v=-pi/2+atan2(d,ak);
                u=atan2(-ny,nx);
            end

            u=u/(pi);
            v=v/(pi/2);

            while(v<-1)
                v=v+2;
                u=u+1;
            end
            while(v>1)
                v=v-2;
                u=u+1;
            end
            while(u<-1)
                u=u+2;
            end
            while(u>1)
                u=u-2;
            end
            u=u/2+0.5;
            v=v/2+0.5;

            u=u*(N-1)+1;
            v=v*(M-1)+1;
            
            fv=floor(v);fv1=floor(v)+1;pv=v-fv;fv1(fv1>M)=M;
            fu=floor(u);fu1=floor(u)+1;pu=u-fu;fu1(fu1>N)=N;
            resultPic(x+1,y+1,:)=double(oriPic(fv,fu,:)).*(1-pv).*(1-pu)+...
                                 double(oriPic(fv1,fu,:)).*(pv).*(1-pu)+...
                                 double(oriPic(fv,fu1,:)).*(1-pv).*(pu)+...
                                 double(oriPic(fv1,fu1,:)).*(pv).*(pu);
        end
    end
    resultPic=uint8(resultPic);
end

函數調用及圖像存儲:
這裡後面長寬數值可以任意設定,但是要求長寬數值一致,如果按照當前寫法,結果被存儲至result文件夾:

if ~exist('result','dir')
   mkdir('result');
end

for i=1:6
    resultPic=createCubeMapFace(oriPic,i,500,500);
    figure(i)
    imshow(resultPic)
    imwrite(resultPic,['result\',num2str(i),'.jpg'])
end

另: 如圖所示
圖片序號[1,2,3,4,5,6]分別對應圖片[右,後,左,前,上,下]

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1.3 完整代碼

function panoramic2box
oriPic=imread('889027-884424860.jpg');
[rows,cols,~]=size(oriPic);

for i=cols:-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListG=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListB=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(:,i,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(:,end:-1:1,:);
for i=size(oriPic,2):-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListG=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    tempListB=oriPic(floor(rows/4):ceil(3*rows/4),i,1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(:,i,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(:,end:-1:1,:);
for i=rows:-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListG=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListB=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(i,:,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(end:-1:1,:,:);
for i=size(oriPic,1):-1:1
    tempListR=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListG=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    tempListB=oriPic(i,floor(cols/4):ceil(3*cols/4),1);
    if all(round(tempListR-mean(tempListR))==0)&&all(tempListR==tempListG)&&all(tempListR==tempListB)
        oriPic(i,:,:)=[];
    else
        break;
    end
end
oriPic=oriPic(end:-1:1,:,:);
% =========================================================================
if ~exist('result','dir')
   mkdir('result');
end

for i=1:6
    resultPic=createCubeMapFace(oriPic,i,500,500);
    figure(i)
    imshow(resultPic)
    imwrite(resultPic,['result\',num2str(i),'.jpg'])
end



% =========================================================================
function resultPic=createCubeMapFace(oriPic,id,height,width)
    [M,N,~]=size(oriPic);
    resultPic=zeros([height,width,3]);
    an=sin(pi/4);
    ak=cos(pi/4);
    
    faceTransform=[0,0;
               pi/2,0;
               pi,0;
               -pi/2,0;
               0,-pi/2;
               0,pi];
    ftu=faceTransform(id,1);
    ftv=faceTransform(id,2);

    for y=0:height-1
        for x=0:width-1
            nx=y/height-0.5;
            ny=x/width-0.5;

            nx=nx*2*an;
            ny=ny*2*an;

            if (ftv == 0)
                u=atan2(nx, ak);
                v=atan2(ny*cos(u),ak);
                u=u+ftu;
            elseif(ftv>0)
                d=sqrt(nx*nx+ny*ny);
                v=pi/2-atan2(d,ak);
                u=atan2(ny,nx);
            else
                d=sqrt(nx*nx+ny*ny);
                v=-pi/2+atan2(d,ak);
                u=atan2(-ny,nx);
            end

            u=u/(pi);
            v=v/(pi/2);

            while(v<-1)
                v=v+2;
                u=u+1;
            end
            while(v>1)
                v=v-2;
                u=u+1;
            end
            while(u<-1)
                u=u+2;
            end
            while(u>1)
                u=u-2;
            end
            u=u/2+0.5;
            v=v/2+0.5;

            u=u*(N-1)+1;
            v=v*(M-1)+1;
            
            fv=floor(v);fv1=floor(v)+1;pv=v-fv;fv1(fv1>M)=M;
            fu=floor(u);fu1=floor(u)+1;pu=u-fu;fu1(fu1>N)=N;
            resultPic(x+1,y+1,:)=double(oriPic(fv,fu,:)).*(1-pv).*(1-pu)+...
                                 double(oriPic(fv1,fu,:)).*(pv).*(1-pu)+...
                                 double(oriPic(fv,fu1,:)).*(1-pv).*(pu)+...
                                 double(oriPic(fv1,fu1,:)).*(pv).*(pu);
        end
    end
    resultPic=uint8(resultPic);
end
end

1.4 其他幾組切割結果

圖片源自:https://www.cgmodel.com/article/9004.html

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part2 盒圖展示

2.1 曲面繪制

使用surf繪制各個曲面後,並為各個曲面貼圖:

for i=1:6
    oriPic.(['p',num2str(i)])=imread(['result\',num2str(i),'.jpg']);   
end
[rows,cols,~]=size(oriPic.p1);
[baseXY,baseZ]=meshgrid(1:cols,rows:-1:1);

ax=gca;hold(ax,'on')


surf(baseXY(:,end:-1:1)-(1+rows)/2,-(rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p1,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(-(rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseXY-(1+rows)/2,baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p2,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY-(1+rows)/2,(rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p3,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf((rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseXY(:,end:-1:1)-(1+rows)/2,baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p4,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY'-(1+rows)/2,baseXY-(1+rows)/2,ones(size(baseXY)),'CData',oriPic.p6(end:-1:1,end:-1:1,:),'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY'-(1+rows)/2,baseXY-(1+rows)/2,rows-1+ones(size(baseXY)),'CData',oriPic.p5(:,end:-1:1,:),'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')

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在這裡插入圖片描述

2.2 視角調整

通過設置axes屬性將視角調整至盒子裡面

ax=axes('parent',fig,'position',[-0.45 -0.45 1.9 1.9]);hold(ax,'on')
ax.ZLim=[0,rows+1];
ax.XLim=[0-(1+rows)/2,rows+1-(1+rows)/2];
ax.YLim=[0-(1+rows)/2,rows+1-(1+rows)/2];
ax.Color=[0 0 0];
ax.CameraPosition=[0,0,rows/2];
ax.CameraPositionMode='manual';
ax.DataAspectRatio=[1,1,1];
ax.DataAspectRatioMode='manual';
ax.Projection='perspective';
ax.CameraTargetMode='manual';
ax.CameraViewAngle = 7;
ax.View=[-2.7391 90.0000];
ax.CameraTarget=[0 0 (rows-1)/2];
ax.Toolbar.Visible='on';

運行後點擊那個三位旋轉按鈕即可開始漫遊

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此時的盒圖是無縫隙版本,有縫隙版放在後面

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2.3 完整代碼

無縫隙版:

function showBox
for i=1:6
    oriPic.(['p',num2str(i)])=imread(['result\',num2str(i),'.jpg']);   
end
[rows,cols,~]=size(oriPic.p1);
[baseXY,baseZ]=meshgrid(1:cols,rows:-1:1);

fig=figure('units','pixels','position',[300 80 500 500],...
                       'Numbertitle','off','menubar','none','resize','off',...
                       'name','box');
                   

ax=axes('parent',fig,'position',[-0.45 -0.45 1.9 1.9]);hold(ax,'on')
ax.ZLim=[0,rows+1];
ax.XLim=[0-(1+rows)/2,rows+1-(1+rows)/2];
ax.YLim=[0-(1+rows)/2,rows+1-(1+rows)/2];
ax.Color=[0 0 0];
ax.CameraPosition=[0,0,rows/2];
ax.CameraPositionMode='manual';
ax.DataAspectRatio=[1,1,1];
ax.DataAspectRatioMode='manual';
ax.Projection='perspective';
ax.CameraTargetMode='manual';
ax.CameraViewAngle = 7;
ax.View=[-2.7391 90.0000];
ax.CameraTarget=[0 0 (rows-1)/2];
ax.Toolbar.Visible='on';




surf(baseXY(:,end:-1:1)-(1+rows)/2,-(rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p1,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(-(rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseXY-(1+rows)/2,baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p2,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY-(1+rows)/2,(rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p3,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf((rows-1)./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseXY(:,end:-1:1)-(1+rows)/2,baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p4,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY'-(1+rows)/2,baseXY-(1+rows)/2,ones(size(baseXY)),'CData',oriPic.p6(end:-1:1,end:-1:1,:),'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY'-(1+rows)/2,baseXY-(1+rows)/2,rows-1+ones(size(baseXY)),'CData',oriPic.p5(:,end:-1:1,:),'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')

end

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有縫隙版:

function showBox2
for i=1:6
    oriPic.(['p',num2str(i)])=imread(['result\',num2str(i),'.jpg']);   
end
[rows,cols,~]=size(oriPic.p1);
[baseXY,baseZ]=meshgrid(1:cols,rows:-1:1);

fig=figure('units','pixels','position',[300 80 500 500],...
                       'Numbertitle','off','menubar','none','resize','off',...
                       'name','box');
                   

ax=axes('parent',fig,'position',[-0.45 -0.45 1.9 1.9]);hold(ax,'on')
ax.ZLim=[0,rows+1];
ax.XLim=[0-(1+rows)/2,rows+1-(1+rows)/2];
ax.YLim=[0-(1+rows)/2,rows+1-(1+rows)/2];
ax.Color=[0 0 0];
ax.CameraPosition=[0,0,rows/2];
ax.CameraPositionMode='manual';
ax.DataAspectRatio=[1,1,1];
ax.DataAspectRatioMode='manual';
ax.Projection='perspective';
ax.CameraTargetMode='manual';
ax.CameraViewAngle = 7;
ax.View=[-2.7391 90.0000];
ax.CameraTarget=[0 0 (rows+1)/2];
ax.Toolbar.Visible='on';




surf(baseXY(:,end:-1:1)-rows/2,-rows./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p1,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(-rows./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseXY-(1+rows)/2,baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p2,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY-(1+rows)/2,rows./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p3,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(rows./2.*ones(size(baseXY)),baseXY(:,end:-1:1)-(1+rows)/2,baseZ,'CData',oriPic.p4,'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY'-(1+rows)/2,baseXY-(1+rows)/2,zeros(size(baseXY)),'CData',oriPic.p6(end:-1:1,end:-1:1,:),'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')
surf(baseXY'-(1+rows)/2,baseXY-(1+rows)/2,rows+ones(size(baseXY)),'CData',oriPic.p5(:,end:-1:1,:),'EdgeColor','none','FaceColor','interp')

end

在這裡插入圖片描述
在這裡插入圖片描述

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